Dear List,
Chapter 13 of LYAH (http://learnyouahaskell.com/for-a-few-monads-more#useful-monadic-functions) has the following code block import Data.List inMany :: Int -> KnightPos -> [KnightPos] inMany x start = return start >>= foldr (<=<) return (replicate x oveKnight) What I'd like to know is where the accumulator of foldr is in this example. Regards, - Olumide _______________________________________________ Beginners mailing list [hidden email] http://mail.haskell.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/beginners |
Hi, Looking at the structure of the expression, you should havefoldr operator accumulator list So in your example the accumulator should be "return" (because it is the second argument) Il gio 26 lug 2018, 03:45 Olumide <[hidden email]> ha scritto: Dear List, _______________________________________________ Beginners mailing list [hidden email] http://mail.haskell.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/beginners |
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Hello, `return` is the initial value. So, `replicate x oveKnignt)` is a list of functions. `foldr` folds them with initial value `return` with the `<=<` between them: functions are folding with (<=<). First folding value is `return` function. You can check the types with :t something in the GHCi. Result of folding is flow of functions or long functions circuit. `return start` is the same as to pass `start` to this functions circuit: inMany x start = foldr (<=<) return (replicate x oveKnight) $ start Idea seems, to make from [KnighPos -> [KnighPos]] functions list one function: KnighPos -> [KnighPos] performing those functions step by step (<=<) and to pass `start` to it. Due to `<=<` joining of functions is not "do", but "do for each...", because <=< is in the list monad. Something like: for x in f-last start:You can look at these types: :t foldr 26.07.2018 04:44, Olumide wrotes:
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foldr does not involve an accumulator. Only left folds involve an
accumulator. Specifically, the expression: foldl f z list can be though of as this loop: var r = z foreach(element in list) { r = f(r, element) } return r That is why, for example, foldl (\r element -> element : r) [] will reverse a list. The accumulator here is the (r) value in the loop. The foldr function does constructor replacement, and in no prescribed order. The expression foldr f z list will replace every (:) with (f) and [] with (z) in list. So the expression foldr (<=<) return will take a list, such as thing one: let list = a : b : c : d : e : [] and turn it into this value: foldr (<=<) return list = a <=< b <=< c <=< d <=< e <=< return This will occur in no prescribed order, although the replacement is right-associative. It is often said that foldr "starts at the right-most", however, this is untrue, since foldr works on infinite list, which has no notion of right-most. Importantly, there is no notion of "accumulator" here, only constructor replacement. The right-associativity simply means that the parentheses are to the right: a <=< (b <=< (c <=< (d <=< (e <=< return)))) However, this does not necessarily impose an execution order, or accumulator. Consider this expression: foldr const (repeat 1) This will produce the value: 1 `const` (1 `const` (1 `const` 1 ... The result of normalising this expression produces the value 1. There is no notion of the "right-most" to "accumulate" anything. It simply evaluates and the answer is 1. On 07/26/2018 11:44 AM, Olumide wrote: > Dear List, > > Chapter 13 of LYAH > (http://learnyouahaskell.com/for-a-few-monads-more#useful-monadic-functions) > has the following code block > > import Data.List > > inMany :: Int -> KnightPos -> [KnightPos] > inMany x start = return start >>= foldr (<=<) return (replicate x > oveKnight) > > What I'd like to know is where the accumulator of foldr is in this > example. > > Regards, > > - Olumide > > > > > _______________________________________________ > Beginners mailing list > [hidden email] > http://mail.haskell.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/beginners _______________________________________________ Beginners mailing list [hidden email] http://mail.haskell.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/beginners signature.asc (499 bytes) Download Attachment |
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