flip lookup in ghci

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flip lookup in ghci

Matt R
So what's this all about then? How come a has become ()?

  ghci> :t lookup
  lookup :: (Eq a) => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b
  ghci> :t flip lookup
  flip lookup :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b
  ghci> let lookupIn = (flip lookup :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b )
  ghci> :t lookupIn
  lookupIn :: [((), b)] -> () -> Maybe b
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flip lookup in ghci

Rafael Gustavo da Cunha Pereira Pinto-2
you are applying the type to lookup only!

try let lookupIn = ((flip lookup ) :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b )

On Fri, Feb 20, 2009 at 07:27, Matt R <[hidden email]> wrote:

> So what's this all about then? How come a has become ()?
>
>  ghci> :t lookup
>  lookup :: (Eq a) => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b
>  ghci> :t flip lookup
>  flip lookup :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b
>  ghci> let lookupIn = (flip lookup :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b )
>  ghci> :t lookupIn
>  lookupIn :: [((), b)] -> () -> Maybe b
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--
Rafael Gustavo da Cunha Pereira Pinto
Electronic Engineer, MSc.
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flip lookup in ghci

Matt R
Rafael Gustavo da Cunha Pereira Pinto <[hidden email]>:
> you are applying the type to lookup only!
>
> try let lookupIn = ((flip lookup ) :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b )

Oops, I didn't mean to include my attempts at type annotation in my
previous email...I meant to write

ghci> let lookupIn = flip lookup

But it doesn't seem to make any difference either way. I still get

ghci> :t lookupIn
lookupIn :: [((), b)] -> () -> Maybe b

regardless :(

-- Matt
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flip lookup in ghci

Felipe Lessa
Let's try to see what is going on using GHCi 6.10.1:

  Prelude> :t lookup
  lookup :: (Eq a) => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b
  Prelude> :t flip lookup
  flip lookup :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b

Everything ok. Lets try binding:

  Prelude> let f = flip lookup
  Prelude> :t f
  f :: [((), b)] -> () -> Maybe b

Woops. Whenever you see a type of a function becoming less polymorphic
than you expected, try adding a parameter:

  Prelude> let g x = flip lookup x
  Prelude> :t g
  g :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b

Nice! Let's try again without the monomorphism restriction[1]

  Prelude> :s -XNoMonomorphismRestriction
  Prelude> let h = flip lookup
  Prelude> :t h
  h :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b
  Prelude> :s -XMonomorphismRestriction

So, that's where the culprit lies! As we declared 'f' without a type
signature and without explicit arguments, the monomorphism restriction
didn't let us overload our function with the 'Eq' class.

Note that if we activated all warnings, GHC would tell us that
something is wrong:

  Prelude> :s -Wall
  Prelude> let j = flip lookup
  <interactive>:1:13:
      Warning: Defaulting the following constraint(s) to type `()'
               `Eq a' arising from a use of `lookup' at <interactive>:1:13-18
      In the first argument of `flip', namely `lookup'
      In the expression: flip lookup
      In the definition of `j': j = flip lookup

We can't just remove the 'Eq' constraint, if we want to refine the
type of 'lookup' then we need to supply something that implements
'Eq'. As GHC doesn't know what you want to do, it just defaults to ().
If, for example, you used the new function in the same let-binding,
GHC would infer another type and show no warnings:

  Prelude> let k = flip lookup; l = k [] (1 :: Int)
  Prelude> :t k
  k :: [(Int, b)] -> Int -> Maybe b

But note that even if you use the function where you defined it, it
can't be polymorphic

  Prelude> let m = flip lookup; n = m [] (1 :: Int); o = m [] (1 :: Double)
  <interactive>:1:52:
      Couldn't match expected type `Int' against inferred type `Double'
      In the second argument of `m', namely `(1 :: Double)'
      In the expression: m [] (1 :: Double)
      In the definition of `o': o = m [] (1 :: Double)

In short: add an explicit parameter or use a type signature. =)

Hope that helps!

[1] http://www.haskell.org/haskellwiki/Monomorphism_restriction

--
Felipe.
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flip lookup in ghci

Magnus Therning
In reply to this post by Matt R
On Fri, Feb 20, 2009 at 12:44 PM, Matt R <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Rafael Gustavo da Cunha Pereira Pinto <[hidden email]>:
>> you are applying the type to lookup only!
>>
>> try let lookupIn = ((flip lookup ) :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b )
>
> Oops, I didn't mean to include my attempts at type annotation in my
> previous email...I meant to write
>
> ghci> let lookupIn = flip lookup
>
> But it doesn't seem to make any difference either way. I still get
>
> ghci> :t lookupIn
> lookupIn :: [((), b)] -> () -> Maybe b
>
> regardless :(

Indeed, how funky:

  GHCi, version 6.8.2: http://www.haskell.org/ghc/  :? for help
  Loading package base ... linking ... done.
  Prelude> :t flip lookup
  flip lookup :: (Eq a) => [(a, b)] -> a -> Maybe b
  Prelude> let lookupIn = flip lookup
  Prelude> :t lookupIn
  lookupIn :: [((), b)] -> () -> Maybe b
  Prelude>

/M

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